Alison J. Sinclair's blog posts tagged with 'virus'

How does a cancer virus take over a cell when it replicates? - reprogramming the expression of the human genome

Mar

30

How does a cancer virus take over a cell when it replicates?

- reprogramming the expression of the human genome


Viruses infect all life forms and each virus uses a unique approach to hijack its host cell and turn it into a virus replication factory. The virus that fascinates me, Epstein-Barr virus, infects people and causes cancers that are often fatal.

Epstein-Barr virus has a remarkable relationship with people, often infecting infants and persisting within a person for life. During much of this time the virus enters a state of latency within cells and no virus replication occurs. However, once the lytic cycle is reactivated a cascade of viral gene expression ensues, the viral genome is replicated, and then virions are assembled and released, liberating hundreds of copies of virus from each cell.  

A long-term enigma that puzzled me about Epstein-Barr virus replication was whether the virus exploits some of the approximately 20,000 genes within the human cell to help its replication? Or whether it relies on its own genes and simply reuses the cellular contents as building blocks to generate new virus particles.

Together with colleagues at the University of Sussex and collaborators at University College London, London Research Institute and the University of Birmingham, we recently used genome-wide technologies to discover that replication of Epstein-Barr virus causes the reprogramming of 2263 human genes. This provides a strong case in favor of the involvement of human genes in Epstein-Barr virus replication.

Probing the mechanism of gene reprogramming identified a route for the regulation of a sub-set of the human genes – through the direct action of a viral protein. This specifically recognizes regions of DNA sometimes located at a gene start and sometimes located hundreds of thousands of nucleotides away.

 

Research publication

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Taking Science To The Public Is Addictive

Oct

14

Taking Science To The Public Is Addictive

“Discussing science with the public - what would I say or do?” – is a wary but quite understandable reaction from many academics. These personal encounters are critical to spreading the messages that science is important, science is fun and that science research is still needed. The key challenge that academics face is to overcome our natural hesitancy and have a go.

My first encounter was to take some experiments into a local primary school, very hard work but fun. Two years ago I volunteered myself again, this time for a public engagement activity at the Brighton Science Festival. I formed a team of ten researchers from the University of Sussex Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Group and we led the audience in a piece of performance art, re-enacting the packaging of DNA. Afterwards everyone was eager for more, so with an expanded team we devised some experiments to take to the Brighton Science Festival “Bright Sparks” event the following year. Here we steered people through two hands-on experiments designed to allow them to experience important scientific concepts about DNA and proteins. Again the response from the team was passionate and members of the public left enthusiastic remarks on our comments boards. Now we plan to return in 2015.

The lessons that I learnt from these experiences are that public engagement is possible and it can be fun and informative for all concerned. But what are the secrets of a successful experience? I recommend the following:

  • On own or as a team.

You can engage with the public on your own – groups such as  “Skeptics In The Pub”, “Sunday Assembly”, “University of the Third Age” and “Women’s Institute” arrange talks on a range of subjects and may welcome an approach from you, but for hands-on activities it is more effective to work as a team.

  • Harness enthusiasm.

You need to start it going, but hopefully the team will sustain this.

  • Obtain funding.

Relatively small amounts will help if you want a display or hands-on activity. We started with some money associated with a research grant from the Medical Research Council, followed by funding from the University of Sussex. For 2015 we applied for and were awarded a grant from the Biochemical Society.

  • Organization

Offer your services to an existing Science Event - they know their audience and have event management experience – you will be free to focus on your area of expertise. Plan your content several months in advance with your team. Expensive research equipment will be of little use to you - don’t even rely on having wi-fi available on the day. I suggest identifying between one and three key concepts that you want to get across and then get inventive, Blue Peter style. Test your ideas and get feedback from nearby non-scientists.

Finally, hold a final planning meeting at least a week in advance and have detailed lists of responsibilities and a time schedule finalized.

  • Be flexible.

After all this detailed planning you will need to be prepared to be flexible on the day, things will go off-schedule and you will have to adapt as you go. If possible have one team member available as a runner to deal with the unexpected glitches.

After the event discuss the feedback with your team, plan any changes for the next time you run it and book in for the following year – once you have experienced public engagement activities you will want more!

@ASLAB

Professor Alison Sinclair's profile page

Sinclair Lab website