David's blog posts tagged with 'pollination'

Biggest bumblebee poisoning event in history

Jun

22

On 15 June, a landscaping company in Wilsonville, Oregon, decided to spray some lime trees with insecticide. The trees were in a parking lot, and had some aphids on them, so there was a risk that some cars might get little drops of sticky honeydew on them. Faced with such a dire threat to the future of humanity, it was only natural and reasonable that the company should blitz the trees with Dinotefuran, a type of neonicotinoid insecticide.

On 22 June, Saturday morning shoppers reported the car park to be blanketed in dead bumblebees; about 50,000 at the latest count. The trees were flowering, and bees love lime nectar. The dose of pesticide they received from the nectar was clearly enough to kill many of them almost instantly, for they fell dead beneath the trees, the biggest recorded bumblebee poisoning event in history. Perhaps many more staggered off to die elsewhere.

For me, this highlights the utter stupidity of allowing pesticides to be used for cosmetic purposes, in gardens and parks. Using pesticides in farming can be justified by the need to grow food efficiently; we all need to eat. But do we need to be able to pop to the local garden centre or supermarket and buy bottles of highly toxic compounds advertised for use on roses and other flowers? In towns, councils routinely spray herbicides and insecticides for no real purpose, other than to make the streets look a little tidier, or the grass in the park look a little greener (and a little more toxic).

Why don’t we ban pesticides in urban areas, and turn our cities into havens for wildlife?

Toronto has banned such chemicals within the city limits. The city hasn’t been over-run with pests. People still have pretty gardens, and grow healthy vegetables. The parks look just fine. If they can do it, why not the rest of us?

Back in Oregon, the Xerces Society, an organisation devoted to insect conservation, have attempted to enclose the poisoned limes with netting to keep bees out. But they are concerned that the poison may stay in the trees for years, since neonicotinoids are very long lasting, so they may poison bees for years to come.

One wonders how many similar incidents escape attention because the bees do not die in such an obvious place. “Wild bees are killed all the time in agricultural fields where nobody sees it happen,” said Mace Vaughan of the Xerces Society. “The fact that this happened in an urban area is probably the only reason it came to our attention.”

Isn’t it high time we stopped poisoning our bees?

 

 

USA finally considering action over neonicotinoids, spurred on by doubts as to whether they actually work

Jun

02

Two US Congressmen have launched a bill to suspend uses of neonicotinoid insecticides in the US, following the lead of the European Union. Representatives John Conyers of Michigan and Earl Bluemenauer or Oregon introduced the “Saving America’s Pollinators Act”. They were prompted by widespread honeybee colony losses and a major bumblebee kill in Oregon where 50,000 dead bumblebees were found beneath two lime trees as a result of their being sprayed with neonicotinoids for ornamental reasons (note that lime trees often have a few dead bumblebees under them for separate reasons that have never been fully explained). I was recently invited over to speak in Capitol Hill in support of this bill.   

The debate over neonicotinoids and bees rolls on and on, with new studies emerging every day. It seems to me that the evidence on bumblebees is clear and convincing - realistic doses are very likely to be doing harm to wild colonies – but the evidence for honeybees remains muddier. However, most of the studies finding no impact on honeybees have been funded by or performed by the industry that manufactures the chemicals, so murky waters are to be expected. 

My visit coincided with the launch of a fascinating review of the economic value of neonicotinoids, produced by the Centre for Food Safety, a US-based non-profit organisation. They review 19 studies that have evaluated how much neonicotinoid seed dressings (the usual way of using these chemicals) increase yield of a range of crops, including wheat, corn, soya beans, and oilseed rape. The findings are astonishing – in every case, the studies either found no benefit whatsoever, or weak and inconsistent benefits unlikely to offset the cost of the pesticide. As Dr Christian Krupke (a leading researcher on this topic at Purdue University) said to me, “There may be places in the US where the pests are so bad that farmers need neonicotinoid seed dressings, but we can’t find them”.

In short, the most widely used pesticides in the world - prophylactically applied to arable crops across the globe - appear to be ineffective, and to have been widely miss-sold. It reminds me a little of the Payment Protection Insurance scandal – farmers are advised to use seed dressings as an insurance against something which, it seems, almost never happens.

Remarkably, no similar studies seem to have ever been performed in the UK or elsewhere in Europe to evaluate how much, if at all, neonic seed dressings increase yield here. It would be easy to do – experimental plots of crops that are treated exactly the same, except for the presence or absence of the seed dressing. How did these chemicals come to be so widely used without the manufacturers demonstrating clearly that they worked? If they did perform such studies, why can nobody find them? Sceptics such as I might also point to Italy, where neonics were banned on corn some years ago and where yields have remained stable and corn farming profitable.   

For me, this turns the whole bee debate on its head. If neonic seed dressings were essential to grow crops, one might have to accept a risk of harm to bees. But it seems that they are not.

In Europe, a decision will need to be made in the next year or so as to whether the current EU moratorium is extended or allowed to lapse. This new evidence will hopefully help to prevent the latter.

Prof Dave Goulson, University of Sussex.

[An abbreviated version of this Blog is published in the newsletter of the BBKA, June 2014]

Will the UK retain the neonicotinoid moratorium post-Brexit?

Oct

14

A couple of weeks ago the Society of Chemical Industry held a meeting in London to discuss “Are neonicotinoids killing bees?” As you might guess from the name of the people organising it, this seems to have been a rather one-sided affair; a bunch of lobbyists from the agrochemical industry, and a hand-picked selection of scientists consisting overwhelmingly of those known to have pro-pesticide leanings and/or receive funding from the agrochemical industry. I was unable to attend this travesty of a meeting, but I did get a chance to hear how it was reported on BBC Radio 4’s Farming Today, and BBC gave me two minutes to give an off-the-cuff response to comments made by two attendees, Norman Carreck[1] (of Sussex University and the International Bee Research Institute) and Peter Campbell (of Syngenta). Here I give a slightly more detailed and considered response.

            Norman’s summary can be paraphrased as “It is all complicated and confusing, we can’t really be sure what harms bees. The moratorium on neonic use on flowering crops[2] is forcing farmers to use older, nastier chemicals that we know little about. This could be worse for bees than using neonics”. Peter stated categorically that in real world situations neonics don’t harm bees. He pointed to an authoritative Swedish study, the largest field trial yet performed to examine the effects of neonics on bees, which found no effect on honeybees of placing their colonies next to a treated oilseed rape crop for one year (Rundlof et al. 2015). Any politician listening to this would be inclined to think that the scientific evidence against neonics is far from clear, and that the current moratorium might be doing more harm than good. Of course this is exactly what the meeting was intended to achieve – job done. The pesticide industry makes billions of dollars every year from these chemicals, and spreading doubt and confusion is a great tactic to prevent policy makers from taking further action, and to encourage a post-EU UK government to abandon the moratorium altogether.

            Let’s look at what we actually do know with certainty about neonics:

1) These are very widely used neurotoxins, applied extensively to many arable, horticultural and ornamental crops, and also found in veterinary products such as flea treatments for dogs and cats. They have high persistence so last for years in soil (Goulson 2013; Bonmatin et al. 2015). They are water soluble and are now routinely found in streams and ponds around the world (Bonmatin et al. 2015). They are also found in the pollen and nectar of wildflowers growing near treated crops (Botias et al. 2015; David et al. 2016), as well as in the pollen and nectar of the crop itself.

2) When we place honeybee or bumblebee nests onto farmland, the pollen and nectar stores that they gather often contain a cocktail of several neonics (and a bunch of other pesticides, mainly fungicides). Concentrations of neonics in their food typically range from 1 to ~10 ppb, sometimes more (which of course means that your breakfast honey also likely contains these neurotoxins) (Botias et al. 2015).

3) If we dose honeybees or bumblebees in the lab or in cages with food spiked with these same concentrations of neonics (i.e. between 1 and 10ppb), we get the following range of effects: reduced longevity, impaired immune response, impaired learning, reduced egg laying in queens, reduced fertility in males (reviewed in Pisa et al. 2015; Straub et al 2016). [Note that not every single study finds the same effects and a few have found no effects, presumably due to differences in methods, the particular neonic and dose used, the age and health of the bees used, the bee species studied etc. It isn’t simple, but the overwhelming evidence is that neonics do harm bees at field-realistic doses]

4) When bumblebee colonies are exposed to field realistic doses (Whitehorn et al. 2012; Arce et al. 2016) or exposed to treated crops in a field setting (Goulson 2015; Rundlof et al. 2015), the colonies perform very poorly, grow slowly and produce few queens.

5) Solitary bees perform poorly when near treated crops; fewer wild bees are found on the crop itself, and Osmia bees fail to nest entirely near treated crops (Rundlof et al. 2015). 

6) Declines of wild bees and butterflies in the UK strongly correlate with geographic patterns of neonic use (Woodcock et al. 2016; Gilburn et al. 2015). [The pesticide industry immediately respond to this by saying “correlation is not proof of causation”. Of course this is also what the tobacco industry said about cancer and smoking. Correlation is not proof, but it is good confirmation of other evidence]    

7) When honeybee colonies are exposed to treated crops, the deleterious effects on individual bees described in (3) do not seem to translate into significant harm to the colonies, at least inside a single year (e.g. Pilling et al. 2013; Cutler & Scott-Dupree 2007; Rundlof et al. 2015). Note that all but one of these studies (Rundlof et al. 2015) were performed by the agrochemical industry themselves or funded by them, and thus should probably be treated with a pinch of salt. If we take them all at face value, this does not rule out the possibility that exposure to neonics might contribute to colony loss in the longer term, for example by reducing queen longevity/ fecundity, but it does seem that there is no dramatic and immediate effect on honeybee colonies in the way that there is with bumblebees and solitary bees. Perhaps the very large colonies of honeybees buffer them against the impacts of pesticides, at least in the short term.  

Overall, the case that neonics harm bumblebees is iron-clad. There are dozens of studies from lab to full field experiments that provide a convincing and coherent body of evidence. The case that neonics cause honeybee colonies to die has not been proven beyond doubt, though it would seem highly likely that having their food laced with neurotoxins at doses that are known to leave individual bees susceptible to disease, dazed and confused isn’t helping them cope with their many other problems.

To return to the comments of Peter and Norman. Peter was being deliberately disingenuous. In referring to the Swedish study (Rundlof et al. 2015) as demonstrating that neonics do not harm honeybees he was relying on the audience being ignorant of the fact that there are many other types of bee, and that this very study showed devastating effects on bumblebees and solitary bees which he thought better than to mention [in case you don’t know, bumblebees are enormously important pollinators of crops and wildflowers, as are some wild solitary bees – in the UK, honeybees contribute no more than ~30% of crop pollination, the rest coming from wild insects].

Norman’s “it is complicated and confusing” is a cop-out. Science is complicated, that is why it takes years to train as a scientist, but it is our job to make sense of the evidence and summarise it in a useful and clear way. It is pretty clear to anyone even a little familiar with the scientific literature on wild bee declines and honeybee colony losses that these phenomena are due to multiple causes, including loss of flower-rich habitat, spread of parasites and diseases, and exposure to pesticides (Goulson et al. 2015). If we want to address bee declines we need to tackle all of these issues, and we need to do so with urgency, not stand around arguing about which is worse or saying we need to do more research before we take any action. 

Norman’s point that the neonicotinoid ban has forced farmers to use older, nastier chemicals that we know little about is interesting, and is an argument I have heard trotted out many times by the agrochemical industry. The neonic ban led UK farmers to increase spraying with pyrethroids in September (on young oilseed rape crops). These are older chemicals, but to say that we know little about them is nonsense. They have been in use for decades and are very well studied. If they were sprayed onto a crop at the time of flowering they would kill lots of bees. However, spraying them in September onto seedling oilseed rape is likely to have minimal impacts on bees; most wild bees are gone by then, and honeybees have no reason to be visiting the crop. Pyrethroids have very low persistence compared to neonics, so they will be not hang around until the spring when the crop flowers. Norman knows this well, since he spent most of his career working at Rothamsted, the very place that developed pyrethroid insecticides. Of course it would be better still if farmers investigated non-chemical means of managing their crop pests whenever possible, adopting an Integrated Pest Management approach, but that is for another day.

Despite what the agrochemistry industry and their supporters say, the evidence linking neonics to bee declines is overwhelming. But industry will continue to say that black is white, that neonics don’t harm bees, just as some continue to deny climate change because it suits their financial interests. As the American author Upton Sinclair once said, “It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends on him not understanding it”. We urgently need to put pressure on our politicians to ensure that they ignore this rubbish and take proper steps to prevent the wholesale pollution of our countryside with persistent neurotoxins. More broadly, we need to find ways to reduce the grip of the chemical manufacturers on the way we grow food. Like Brexit or not, it provides a golden opportunity, freeing British farming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and making it possible to steer it away from industrial, chemical farming towards more sustainable methods. If we do not, we will lose bees and much else of our wildlife for ever.    

 

References (links provided wherever possible)

Arce, AN et al. 2016. Combining realism with control: impact of controlled neonicotinoid exposure on bumblebees in a realistic field setting. Journal of Applied Ecology, October 2016 DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12792

Bonmatin J-M., Giorio C., Girolami V., Goulson D., Kreutzweiser D., Krupke C., Liess M., Long E., Marzaro M., Mitchell E., Noome D., Simon-Delso N., Tapparo A. 2015. Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLLUTION RESEARCH 22: 35-67.

Botías, C., David, A., Horwood, J., Abdul-Sada, A., Nicholls, E., Hill, E., Goulson, D. 2015. Neonicotinoid residues in wildflowers, a potential route of chronic exposure for bees. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 49: 12731-12740.

Cutler GC, Scott-Dupree C (2007) Exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola has no long-term impact on honey bees. J Econ Entomol 100: 765–772

David, A., Botías, C., Abdul-Sada, A., Nicholls, E., Rotheray, E.L., Hill, E.M. & Goulson, D. 2016. Widespread contamination of wildflower and bee-collected pollen with complex mixtures of neonicotinoids and fungicides commonly applied to crops. ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL 88: 169-178.

Goulson D. 2015. Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment. PEERJ 3:e854.

Goulson, D. 2013. An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY 50: 977-987.

Goulson, D., Nicholls E., Botías C., & Rotheray, E.L. 2015. Combined stress from parasites, pesticides and lack of flowers drives bee declines. SCIENCE 347: 1435-+.  

Pilling et al. 2013; A Four-Year Field Program Investigating Long-Term Effects of Repeated Exposure of Honey Bee Colonies to Flowering Crops Treated with Thiamethoxam. PLOSOne http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077193

Pisa L., Amaral-Rogers V., Belzunces L.P., Bonmatin J-M., Downs C., Goulson D., Kreutzweiser D.P., Krupke C., Liess M., McField M., Morrissey C.A., Noome D.A., Settele J., Simon-Delso N., Stark J.D., Van der Sluijs J.P., Van Dyck H. and Wiemers M. 2015. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLLUTION RESEARCH 22: 68-102.

Rundlof et al. 2015 Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees. Nature 521: 77-80

Straub, L. et al. Neonicotinoid insecticides can serve as inadvertent contraceptives. Proc. Roy. Soc. B doi : 10.1098/rspb.2016.0506

Whitehorn PR, O'Connor, S., Wackers, F. L. & Goulson, D. 2012. Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production. Science, 336, 351-352

Woodcock, B.A. et al. 2016. Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England. Nature Communications 7, 12459.

  



[1] Norman Carreck asked me to add the following statement from himself:

"Norman Carreck has tried to remain objective throughout the debate about pesticides and bees. As he has stated publicly before, apart from his university undergraduate project in 1984 (a study looking at reducing fertiliser use on oilseed rape), which was funded by the then ICI Fertilisers Ltd, he has never worked on any project funded by any agrochemical company, nor has he ever received any private payment from any agrochemical company. He has also never worked on any project funded by any environmental campaigning organisation or pressure group, and has never received any private payment from any environmental campaigning organisation or pressure group".

[2] In the EU a moratorium was introduced in 2013 preventing the use of neonics on flowering crops such as oilseed rape. However, they remain very widely used on cereals and other crops, and total usage continues to rise year on year, according to Defra statistics (PUSSTATS website). As I have mentioned in previous blogs, yields of crops on which neonics can no longer be used have been as high or higher than usual since the moratorium. 

Are robotic bees the future?

Feb

07

Robot bee

 

There have been a number of scientific papers published in recent years discussing the possibility of building miniature flying robots to replace bees and pollinate crops. Clumsy prototypes have been tested, and seem to crudely work. If crops could be pollinated this way, farmers wouldn’t have to worry about harming bees with their insecticides. With wild bee populations in decline, perhaps these tiny robots are the answer?

While I can see the intellectual interest in trying to create robotic bees, I would argue that it is exceedingly unlikely that we could ever produce something as cheap or as effective as bees themselves. Bees have been around and pollinating flowers for more than 120 million years; they have evolved to become very good at it. It is remarkable hubris to think that we can improve on that. Consider just the numbers; there are roughly 80 million honeybee hives in the world, each containing perhaps 40,000 bees through the spring and summer. That adds up to 3.2 trillion bees. They feed themselves for free, breed for free, and even give us honey as a bonus. What would the cost be of replacing them with robots? Even if the robots could be built, complete with power pack and control devices, for one penny each (which seems absurdly optimistic) it would cost £32 billion to build them. And how long would they last? Some would malfunction, some would get caught out in the rain, some would be damaged by wind or spiders’ webs. If we very optimistically calculate the lifespan at one year, that means spending £32 billion every year (and continually littering the environment with trillions of tiny robots, unless they could be made biodegradable). What about the environmental costs of manufacture? What resources would they require, what carbon footprint would they have? Real bees avoid all of these issues; they are self-replicating, self-powering, and essentially carbon neutral.    

Thus far I have glossed over a vital further point. Pollination is not all done by honeybees. Numerous other insects pollinate crops and wildflowers, including butterflies, beetles, moths, flies, wasps and many more. These come in all sorts of different shapes and sizes suited to different flowers. Honeybees contribute at best 1/3 of crop pollination, averaged across crops. So we wouldn’t just need to replace the 3.2 trillion honeybees. We’d also need to replace countless trillions of other insects. All to replace creatures that currently deliver pollination for free.

Declines of bees are symptomatic of larger issues. It is not just bees that are declining; almost all wildlife is declining in the face of massive habitat loss and pollution across the globe. Even supposing we could create robot bees cheaply enough for it to be viable, should we? If farmers no longer need to worry about harming bees they could perhaps spray more pesticides, but there are many other beneficial creatures that live in farmland that would be harmed; ladybirds, hoverflies and wasps that attack crop pests, worms, dung beetles and millipedes that help recycle nutrients and keep the soil healthy, and many more. Are we going to make robotic worms and ladybirds too? What kind of world would we end up with?

Do we have to always look for a technical solution to the problems that we create, when a simple, natural solution is staring us in the face? We have wonderfully efficient pollinators already, let’s look after them, not plan for their demise. 

Pesticides in “Bee-Friendly” flowers

Jun

01

Take a walk around your local garden centre and you will see a mouth-watering display of gorgeous plants on display. You might note that some are specifically labelled as bee or pollinator friendly, with a picture of a cartoon bumblebee on the label. The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) provide a “Perfect for Pollinators” logo which can be added to the label of any of the long list of garden plants that they judge to be good for pollinators. If you like hearing the buzz of bees in your garden, and want to do your bit to help our wildlife, you might well be tempted. Indeed, I have often spent a small fortune myself on potted plants when I only went to the garden centre to buy a pack of vegetable seeds. The big DIY and supermarket chains are similar – somewhere by the main entrance you will see a range of colourful plants in plastic pots and trays, some of them labelled as bee-friendly.

            If, like me, you’ve ever succumbed to the temptation to buy these plants, you may be somewhat concerned by the results of our latest research. Here at Sussex University we have been busy screening the leaves, pollen and nectar of these plants to see if they contain pesticides. We bought flowering plants from a range of major outlets; Wyevale (the biggest garden centre chain in the UK) and also Aldi, B&Q and Homebase. We deliberately bought plants that are known to be attractive to bees and butterflies; most of them had a bee-friendly logo, often the RHS one.

We found that most of these plants contained a cocktail of pesticides, usually a mixture of fungicides and insecticides. I wish I could say that I was surprised by the results, but sadly I wasn’t, for this mirrors similar studies performed in other countries. Only two out of 29 plants contained no pesticides. Seventy six percent of them (22/29) contained at least one insecticide, and 38% contained two or more insecticides. One flowering heather plant contained five different insecticides and five different fungicides – a veritable toxic bouquet. Seventy percent of the plants contained neonicotinoids (insecticides that are notorious for their harmful effects on bees), commonly including the ones banned for use on flowering crops by the EU (for the technically minded, 38% contained imidacloprid, 14% contained thiamethoxam and one contained clothianidin). Enough detail; you get the picture. Plants sold as ‘bee-friendly’ plants are usually stuffed full of pesticides.

Just before our results went public, B&Q (who knew that out study was appearing imminently) announced that they were prohibiting their suppliers from using neonicotinoids on their plants from February 2018. This is of course a great step forwards; well done B&Q, next time I need some screws or shelving I will be heading your way, and I hope others do likewise. Once our results were out Aldi declared that they stopped using neonicotinoids in October 2016 (we bought the plants we tested from them in July 2016). Also great news.  

Homebase and Wyevale have so far declined to make any public comment, despite high profile articles about the work in the Daily Mail and Independent. The Horticultural Trades Association, which represents the gardening industry, has been less than positive (http://bit.ly/2rXM4sL). Firstly, they claim that the three neonicotinoids banned by the EU on flowering crops are not used in horticulture (which would seem to simply be untrue). They then go on to say the “industry works closely with government bodies and other stakeholders to uphold high standards of environmental management”. They say that the concentrations of pesticides we found are at “low levels”, that we only sampled from “a very restricted area of the country”, and they suggest that the presence of clothianidin in one plant shows that our samples were contaminated, since this product has never been approved for use on ornamentals. In other words, instead of engaging positively, they try to undermine and play down our work.

Let’s have a closer look at their criticisms. Firstly, the concentration of the pesticide is of course important. Modern analytical techniques are very sensitive and tiny concentrations can be detected. Perhaps the concentrations we detected are all too low to do any actual harm? For neonicotinoids, the concentrations typically found in the nectar and pollen of treated crops such as oilseed rape are in the range 1-10 parts per billion (ppb). Exposure to such concentrations has been found to impair bee navigation and learning, reduce egg laying, lower sperm viability, and suppress the immune system. In a study with bumblebee nests we found that giving them pollen with 6ppb of neonicotinoid reduced nest growth and resulted in an 85% drop in the number of new queens produced[1]. In the ornamental flowers, we found imidacloprid at up to a maximum concentration of 29ppb, clothianidin at 13ppb and thiamethoxam at 119ppb. In other words, concentrations far higher than those known to harm bees. The claim that we only sampled from a “very restricted area” is pretty absurd. It is true, we sampled from stores near Brighton, but these are huge chains with a national/international supply network. Are HTA really suggesting the problem is peculiar to East Sussex? On the presence of clothianidin and the suggestion that our samples were contaminated, HTA need to learn a bit more about pesticides. As well as being used as a pesticide in its own right, clothianidin is a breakdown product of the closely related chemical thiamethoxam. The Ageratum plant containing the clothianidin also contained much higher levels of thiamethoxam, presumably the product with which it had been treated. So, not evidence of contamination at all.          

            I would argue that, by quibbling over details and focussing on neonicotinoids, HTA are missing the bigger picture, as indeed are B&Q and Aldi. Neonicotinoids are undoubtedly bad for bees, but what about all the other chemicals? If I buy a plant to feed to bees I don’t want it to have been drenched with a pyrethroid or organophosphate insecticide either. Both are highly poisonous to bees (and organophosphates are exceedingly toxic to people too). Even some of the fungicides have been found to harm bees[2]. If I’m buying plants to encourage wildlife, I don’t want the lingering worry that I might be accidentally poisoning my bees, hoverflies and butterflies. I don’t use any pesticides in my garden – I simply don’t need them. I don’t want to bring them in accidentally.   

            It is a shame that the horticulture industry seems largely unwilling to engage over this issue. It is perhaps not surprising, since their track record is not great. They’ve been continuing to promote and use peat-based composts for many decades despite the ready availability of perfectly good alternatives (in case you didn’t know, peat extraction does terrible damage to peat bogs, exacerbates flooding and ultimately releases huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere). With birds, bees and butterflies all in rapid decline (2016 was the worst year ever for British butterflies), we all need to be willing to admit our mistakes and change our ways. HTA and the big garden chains such as Wyevale could really help to make a difference if they wanted to. I’d be very happy to help if they would like some advice (Wyevale, how about launching a new organic range of genuinely bee-friendly plants?)

Until the gardening industry gets its act together, I’d suggest the following. If you must buy plants, buy from an organic nursery, or failing that from B&Q or Aldi. Better still grow them from seeds, or if you haven’t the patience, plant swap with your friends and neighbours (if anyone wants some comfrey roots and lives near E Sussex I’d be happy to give you some, pesticide free, it is a fabulous plant for bees). We really can make our gardens into havens for wildlife, but not by driving to the garden centre to buy pesticide-laced plants grown in peat-based compost inside disposable plastic pots.    

 -----------------------------

Our research describing in detail the pesticides we found is here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749117305158 

It was published in the journal Environmental Pollution, May 2017. 



[1] Whitehorn et al. 2012, Science, 336: 351-352.

[2] Bernauer et al. 2015, Insects 6: 478-488